The Genetic Sample takes bees and strips them of 1 of the 13 traits randomly. You will not get your bee back once you put it into the machine, so it's best if you use Drones that you have a lot of, or bees that you do not need.
Remember, this machine requires power, Genetics Labware and a “Blank Gene Sample” per bee. It can auto-output to a nearby chest.
The main trait we are looking for with ANY bee you put into the machine will be the Species. Any Gene Samples that you do not need can be thrown into a furnace where they will be turned back into blanks.
You want to get the Species for ANY bee that you discover. This will help you if you ever need to make a new Drone, Queen or Princess of that species.
Once you have the Species Gene Sample, you can add it to a Genetic Template. You can add up to 13 Samples to a template. This can be done in the crafting grid. Once you have added the species, you can fill out the other 12 traits. This way, you can tailor your bees to your liking. You just need to find the traits from other bees and run them through the sampler.
You can always change which traits you have added in the future by adding traits in the crafting grid; they will overwrite the old one.