There is no reason for you to do all the leg work when you can get Golems to do it all for you. From carrying stuff around to fighting for you, Golems can just about do anything.
Golems, as a whole, is not as simple as going from one stage to the next and explaining what each stage gives you. It's best to try to research everything, and then go into detail about what each rune and Golem does.
You would waste materials just making Golems to see what each one can do and what its abilities are. You will have to unlock the Arcane Levitator, under Artifice. This is not complicated, and only needs you to scan a few things.
Doing all the research and the bare minimum crafting is more efficient. Once you have done each stage, you should go into crafting Golems.
Before you go into Golems, ensure you have the following on hand so you can craft Basic Golems:
For more Advanced Golems, you will need a few more materials, depending on what upgrades you want to give them: